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Litaliano Dachau VideoVisita guidata al lager di Dachau On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an cash casino for persons. Retrieved 30 January In the entire history of the Orthodox Church there has probably never been an Easter service like plu500 one at Dachau in There is a Russian Orthodox chapel at the camp today, and it is well elite for its icon of Christ leading the prisoners out of the camp litaliano dachau. Despondent prisoners committed suicide by em spiele the zone. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The historic centre of town with its 18th-century castle is situated on an elevation and flatex kunden werben kunden over a great thor 4 regler. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. Towns in Bavaria Dachau district Dachau. Inadequately clothed for the bitter cold, of this group only 82 survived.
Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will likely never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption.
In late , a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, which caused more than 15, deaths. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners.
After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die. Seventh Army was "working day and night to alleviate the appalling conditions at the camp".
There were documented deaths among the 2, patients cared for by the th. Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of , prisoners and deaths of 31, Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased.
Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths.
It is claimed that in , more than 3, prisoners in weakened condition were transported to Hartheim Castle near Linz , and were executed by poison gas because they were deemed unfit.
Army report of ,  though the Dachau administration registered 12, deaths from typhus at the camp over the same period. Dachau was the third concentration camp to be liberated by British or American Allied forces.
After the takeover of Bavaria on 9 March , Heinrich Himmler , then Chief of Police in Munich, began to speak with the administration of an unused gunpowder and munitions factory.
He toured the site to see if it could be used for quartering protective-custody prisoners. The Concentration Camp at Dachau was opened 22 March , with the arrival of about prisoners from Stadelheim Prison in Munich and the Landsberg fortress where Hitler had written Mein Kampf during his imprisonment.
The construction was officially completed in mid-August Sinti and Roma in the hundreds were sent to the camp in , and over 13, prisoners were sent to the camp from Poland in The prisoners of Dachau concentration camp originally were to serve as forced labor for a munition factory, and to expand the camp.
It was used as a training center for SS guards and was a model for other concentration camps. This reflected Nazi propaganda, which trivialized concentration camps as labor and re-education camps, when in fact forced labor was used as a method of torture and murder.
As of , the procedure for new arrivals occurred at the Schubraum , where prisoners were to hand over their clothing and possessions. Everything had to be handed over: One was now stark naked".
The camp included an administration building that contained offices for the Gestapo trial commissioner, SS authorities, the camp leader and his deputies.
These administration offices consisted of large storage rooms for the personal belongings of prisoners, the bunker, roll-call square where guards would also inflict punishment on prisoners especially those who tried to escape , the canteen where prisoners served SS men with cigarettes and food, the museum containing plaster images of prisoners who suffered from bodily defects, the camp office, the library, the barracks, and the infirmary, which was staffed by prisoners who had previously held occupations such as physicians or army surgeons.
The SS used the cynical term "special treatment" for these criminal executions. The first executions of the Soviet prisoners of war at the Hebertshausen shooting range took place on 25 November After , the number of prisoners regularly held at the camp continued to exceed 12, In , Dachau became filled with Polish prisoners, who constituted the majority of the prisoner population until Dachau was officially liberated.
The prisoner enclosure at the camp was heavily guarded to ensure that no prisoners escaped. Despondent prisoners committed suicide by entering the zone.
A four-foot-deep and eight-foot-broad 1. In the last months of the war, the conditions at Dachau deteriorated.
As Allied forces advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners from concentration camps near the front to more centrally located camps.
They hoped to prevent the liberation of large numbers of prisoners. Transports from the evacuated camps arrived continuously at Dachau.
After days of travel with little or no food or water, the prisoners arrived weak and exhausted, often near death.
Typhus epidemics became a serious problem as a result of overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, insufficient provisions, and the weakened state of the prisoners.
Owing to repeated transports from the front, the camp was constantly overcrowded and the hygiene conditions were beneath human dignity.
Starting from the end of up to the day of liberation, 15, people died, about half of all the prisoners held at KZ Dachau. Five hundred Soviet POWs were executed by firing squad.
The first shipment of women came from Auschwitz-Birkenau. As late as 19 April , prisoners were sent to KZ Dachau; on that date a freight train from Buchenwald with nearly 4, was diverted to Nammering.
SS troops and police confiscated food and water, which local townspeople tried to give to the prisoners. Nearly three hundred dead bodies were ordered removed from the train and carried to a ravine over metres.
The prisoners who had been forced to carry the dead to this site were then shot by the guards, and buried along with those who had died on the train.
Nearly bodies went into this mass grave. The train continued on to KZ Dachau. During April as U. Himmler, in signed correspondence, prohibited such a move, adding that "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive.
On 24 April , just days before the U. Many others died of exhaustion, hunger and exposure. Though at the time of liberation the death rate had peaked at per day, after the liberation by U.
In addition to the direct abuse of the SS and the harsh conditions, people died from typhus epidemics and starvation. The number of inmates had peaked in with transports from evacuated camps in the east such as Auschwitz , and the resulting overcrowding led to an increase in the death rate.
Dachau was opened in March On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for people. Between the years and , more than 3.
Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which were considered to enable them to engage in subversion and conspiracy against the Nazis.
The camp was divided into two sections: The camp area consisted of 32 barracks, including one for clergy imprisoned for opposing the Nazi regime and one reserved for medical experiments.
The courtyard between the prison and the central kitchen was used for the summary execution of prisoners. The camp was surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire gate, a ditch, and a wall with seven guard towers.
In early , the SS , using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex of buildings on the grounds of the original camp.
The construction was officially completed in mid-August and the camp remained essentially unchanged and in operation until A crematorium that was next to, but not directly accessible from within the camp, was erected in KZ Dachau was therefore the longest running concentration camp of the Third Reich.
The Dachau complex included other SS facilities beside the concentration camp—a leader school of the economic and civil service, the medical school of the SS, etc.
The camp at that time was called a "protective custody camp," and occupied less than half of the area of the entire complex. Hundreds of prisoners suffered and died, or were executed in medical experiments conducted at KZ Dachau, for which Sigmund Rascher was in charge.
Hypothermia experiments involved exposure to vats of icy water or being strapped down naked outdoors in freezing temperatures. Attempts at reviving the subjects included scalding baths, and forcing naked women to copulate with the unconscious victim.
Nearly prisoners died during these experiments. Extensive communication between the investigators and Heinrich Himmler , head of the SS, documents the experiments.
During high altitude experiments were conducted. The camp was originally designed for holding German and Austrian political prisoners and Jews, but in it began to be used also for ordinary criminals.
Inside the camp there was a sharp division between the two groups of prisoners; those who were there for political reasons and therefore wore a red tag, and the criminals, who wore a green tag.
Dachau was used as the chief camp for Christian mainly Catholic clergy who were imprisoned for not conforming with the Nazi Party line.
During the war, other nationals were transferred to it, including French; in Poles; in people from the Balkans, Czechs, Yugoslavs; and in , Russians.
Prisoners were divided into categories. At first, they were classified by the nature of the crime for which they were accused, but eventually were classified by the specific authority-type under whose command a person was sent to camp.
The average number of Germans in the camp during the war was 3, Just before the liberation many German prisoners were evacuated, but 2, of these Germans died during the evacuation transport.
In effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi security services monitored clergy very closely.
Priests Barracks at Dachau were established in Blocks 26, 28 and 30, though only temporarily. Of a total of 2, clergy recorded as imprisoned at Dachau, the overwhelming majority, some 2, or The Nazis introduced a racial hierarchy—keeping Poles in harsh conditions, while favouring German priests.
Inadequately clothed for the bitter cold, of this group only 82 survived. A large number of Polish priests were chosen for Nazi medical experiments.
In November , 20 were given phlegmons. Several Poles met their deaths with the "invalid trains" sent out from the camp, others were liquidated in the camp and given bogus death certificates.
Some died of cruel punishment for misdemeanors—beaten to death or run to exhaustion. The camp staff consisted mostly of SS males, although 19 female guards served at Dachau as well, most of them until liberation.
Several Norwegians worked as guards at the Dachau camp. In the major Dachau war crimes case United States of America v.
Martin Gottfried Weiss et. He testified about hangings, shootings and lethal injections, but did not admit to direct responsibility for any individual deaths.
Satellite camps under the authority of Dachau were established in the summer and autumn of near armaments factories throughout southern Germany to increase war production.
Dachau alone had more than 30 large subcamps in which over 30, prisoners worked almost exclusively on armaments. Overall, the Dachau concentration camp system included sub-camps and Kommandos which were set up in when factories were built near the main camp to make use of forced labor of the Dachau prisoners.
Out of the sub-camps, eleven of them were called Kaufering, distinguished by a number at the end of each.
All Kaufering sub-camps were set up to specifically build three underground factories Allied bombing raids made it necessary for them to be underground for a project called Ringeltaube wood pigeon , which planned to be the location in which the German jet fighter plane, Messerschmitt Me , was to be built.
In the last days of war, in April , the Kaufering camps were evacuated and around 15, prisoners were sent up to the main Dachau camp. Typhus alone was estimated to have caused 15, deaths between December and April In spite of this one hundred prisoners died each day during the first month from typhus, dysentery or general weakness".
Army troops neared the Dachau sub-camp at Landsberg on 27 April , the SS officer in charge ordered that 4, prisoners be murdered. Windows and doors of their huts were nailed shut.
The buildings were then doused with gasoline and set afire. Prisoners who were naked or nearly so were burned to death, while some managed to crawl out of the buildings before dying.
Earlier that day, as Wehrmacht troops withdrew from Landsberg am Lech, towns people hung white sheets from their windows.
Infuriated SS troops dragged German civilians from their homes and hanged them from trees. As the Allies began to advance on Nazi Germany, the SS began to evacuate the first concentration camps in summer At the end of , the overcrowding of camps began to take its toll on the prisoners.
The unhygienic conditions and the supplies of food rations became disastrous. In November a typhus fever epidemic broke out that took thousands of lives.
In the second phase of the evacuation, in April , Himmler gave direct evacuation routes for remaining camps. Prisoners who were from the northern part of Germany were to be directed to the Baltic and North Sea coasts to be drowned.
The prisoners from the southern part were to be gathered in the Alps, which was the location in which the SS wanted to resist the Allies .
On 28 April , an armed revolt took place in the town of Dachau. Both former and escaped concentration camp prisoners, and a renegade Volkssturm civilian militia company took part.
The advanced forces of the SS gruesomely suppressed the revolt within a few hours. Being fully aware that Germany was about to be defeated in World War II, the SS invested its time in removing evidence of the crimes it committed in the concentration camps.
They began destroying incriminating evidence in April and planned on murdering the prisoners using codenames "Wolke A-I" Cloud A-1 and "Wolkenbrand" Cloud fire.
In mid-April, plans to evacuate the camp started by sending prisoners toward Tyrol. On 26 April, over 10, prisoners were forced to leave the Dachau concentration camp on foot, in trains, or in trucks.
The largest group of some 7, prisoners was driven southward on a foot-march lasting several days. More than 1, prisoners did not survive this march.
The evacuation transports cost many thousands of prisoners their lives. On 26 April prisoner Karl Riemer fled the Dachau concentration camp to get help from American troops and on 28 April Victor Maurer, a representative of the International Red Cross, negotiated an agreement to surrender the camp to U.
That night a secretly formed International Prisoners Committee took over the control of the camp. Sparks , were ordered to secure the camp. On 29 April Sparks led part of his battalion as they entered the camp over a side wall.
More than 30, Jews and political prisoners were freed, and since adherents of the 42nd and 45th Division versions of events have argued over which unit was the first to liberate Dachau.
During the liberation of the sub-camps surrounding Dachau, advance scouts of the U. American soldiers then went into Landsberg and rounded up all the male civilians they could find and marched them out to the camp.
The former commandant was forced to lie amidst a pile of corpses. The male population of Landsberg was then ordered to walk by, and ordered to spit on the commandant as they passed.
The commandant was then turned over to a group of liberated camp survivors". Due to the number of sub-camps over a large area that comprised the Dachau concentration camp complex, many Allied units have been officially recognized by the United States Army Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as liberating units of Dachau, including: American troops killed some of the camp guards after they had surrendered.
The number is disputed as some were killed in combat, some while attempting to surrender, and others after their surrender was accepted.
In Brigadier General Felix L. Sparks, the Colonel in command of a battalion that was present, stated:. The total number of German guards killed at Dachau during that day most certainly does not exceed fifty, with thirty probably being a more accurate figure.
The regimental records of the th Field Artillery Regiment for that date indicate that over a thousand German prisoners were brought to the regimental collecting point.
Since my task force was leading the regimental attack, almost all the prisoners were taken by the task force, including several hundred from Dachau.
An Inspector General report resulting from a US Army investigation conducted between 3 and 8 May and titled, "American Army Investigation of Alleged Mistreatment of German Guards at Dachau," found that 21 plus "a number" of presumed SS men were killed with others being wounded after their surrender had been accepted.
According to Sparks, court-martial charges were drawn up against him and several other men under his command but General George S.
Patton , who had recently been appointed military governor of Bavaria, chose to dismiss the charges. Decker, an acting deputy judge advocate, concluded in late that, while war crimes had been committed at Dachau by Germany, "Certainly, there was no such systematic criminality among United States forces as pervaded the Nazi groups in Germany.
Dachau was founded in the 9th century. It was home to many artists during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; well-known author and editor Ludwig Thoma lived here for two years.
The town is also known for its proximity to the infamous Dachau concentration camp built in by the Nazis , in which tens of thousands of prisoners died.
The origin of the name is not known, it possibly originated with the Celts who lived there before the Germans came. An alternative idea is that it comes from the old high German word daha meaning clay, and ouwe , water overflown land.
As the Amper River would divert into backwaters in several places, there were many fords making it possible to cross the river.
The oldest findings of human presence here date back to the Stone Age. The most noteworthy findings were discovered near Feldgeding in the adjoining municipality Bergkirchen.
Approximately at the turn of the first millennium the Romans conquered the area and incorporated it into the province of Rhaetia.
Remains of this old route are found along the Amper marshlands. The first known documentation of Dachau occurs in a medieval deed issued by the Noble Erchana of Dahauua to the prince-bishop of Freising  , both descendants of the lineage of the Aribonids.
With this deed, dated to August 15, A. During much of the 12th century, Dachau was the primary residence of a smaller branch from the House of Wittelsbach led by Otto I, Count of Scheyern-Dauchau.
In Sigismund, Duke of Bavaria resigned and then kept only Bavaria-Dachau as his domain until his death in Between and , the House of Wittelsbach had the Dachau Palace erected in the Renaissance style.
From June to Autumn , Joseph Effner remodeled the palace to suit the contemporary taste in style. The west-wing housing the dance hall with a superb view of the enchanting gardens, still remains today.
On the first floor the original renaissance wood carved, coffered ceiling can be admired by visitors. During the second half of the 19th century, the town began to attract landscape artists.
In the Dachau concentration camp was built east of the city by the Nazis and operated until It was the first of what became many camps. It is meters above sea level by the river Amper , with a boundary demarcated by lateral moraines formed during the last ice age and the Amper glacial valley.
It is also close to a large marshy area called Dachauer Moos. Highest elevation of the district is the so-called "Schlossberg", the lowest point is near the neighborhood of Prittlbach, at the border to the next community of Hebertshausen.
Since the former communities of Pellheim with Pullhausen, Assenhausen, Lohfeld, and Viehgarten have been incorporated into Dachau. West of the so-called Festwiese runs another canal, called Lodererbach.
This canal was built in the mid-eighteenth century as part of the northern Munich canal system to which the Nymphenburger Canal belongs as well.
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