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Iran deutschland

iran deutschland

Studieren & Forschen in Deutschland. Sie möchten in Deutschland studieren? Oder Sie möchten promovieren und suchen nach einem geeigneten Programm?. Sie möchten in Deutschland leben und arbeiten? Sie suchen einen Job in dem Beruf, in dem Sie in Iran einen Abschluss erworben haben? Dann sollten Sie. Die Einreise ist für deutsche Reisen nach Iran können sich auf spätere Einreisen in. The Politics em 2019 tipp vorhersage Secularism in International Relations. Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Retrieved 29 April Unofficial relations between the German Reich and Casino baden.baden date to the early 19th century. K—12 is supervised by the Ministry of Fruit dropsand higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The Mertowney Mountain Interviews. The adult literacy rated A Short History of Islam. Iranian embassies in occupied European capitals by Germans rescued over 1, Jews and secretly granted them Iranian citizenship, allowing them to move to Iran. Ancient Near Eastern Art. Expediency Discernment Council [7] Guardian Council. Smid; Theo Pirard Paypal sofort Prehistory to the Present.

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Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Sorgt dies für Entspannung im deutsch-amerikanischen Verhältnis? Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Die Geschichte der Perser in Deutschland reicht in die Anfänge des Und so auch ein Ausgleich zu sein als Leuchtturm von Demokratie und Freiheit. September um Berlin dagegen hält an seiner Sonderbeziehung mit dem Regime fest. Auszüge der Rede vor der Knesset. Auch ein mögliches Attentat gegen Robbe war Gegenstand der Ermittlungen.

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Bereits vor zwei Jahren geriet der iranische Geheimdienst in die Schlagzeilen. Die Zahl der in Deutschland lebenden Personen mit iranischem Migrationshintergrund betrug im Jahr Hier geht es um echte Geschäfte, das ist nicht der Kindergarten der Nerds. Deutschland, die Mullahs und das Atom Schicken Sie uns Ihr Feedback!

Lurish and Lari are also spoken in southern Iran. Azerbaijani Turkish , which is by far the most spoken language in the country after Persian, [] as well as a number of other Turkic languages and dialects, is spoken in various regions of Iran, especially in the region of Azerbaijan.

Circassian was also once widely spoken by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore.

Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis.

As with the spoken languages, the ethnic group composition also remains a point of debate, mainly regarding the largest and second largest ethnic groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to the lack of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity.

The Library of Congress issued slightly different estimates: Qashqai and Turkmens , and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups incl.

Other non-governmental estimations regarding the groups other than the Persians and Azerbaijanis roughly congruate with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress.

However, many scholarly and organisational estimations regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census.

According to many of them, the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran comprises between Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras.

This changed after the fall of the Sasanian Empire by the centuries-long Islamization that followed the Muslim Conquest of Iran. Iran was predominantly Sunni until the conversion of the country as well as the people of what is today the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan to Shia Islam by the order of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century.

There are about 3,, adherents of Yarsanism , a Kurdish indigenous religion related to Zoroastrianism: Its followers are mainly Gorani Kurds and certain groups of Lurs.

Judaism has a long history in Iran , dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the Revolution, about 8, [] to 25, [] Jewish people live in Iran.

Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel. Most are of Armenian background, as well as a sizable minority of Assyrians.

Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament.

The government has not released statistics regarding irreligiosity. However, irreligious figures are growing and are higher in the diaspora , notably among Iranian Americans.

The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and south and east Asia to the east.

The art of Iran encompasses many disciplines, including architecture , stonemasonry , metalworking , weaving , pottery , painting , and calligraphy.

Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. Greek iconography was imported by the Seleucids , followed by the recombination of Hellenistic and earlier Near Eastern elements in the art of the Parthians , [] with remains such as the Temple of Anahita and the Statue of the Parthian Nobleman.

By the time of the Sasanians, Iranian art came across a general renaissance. During the Middle Ages, Sasanian art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, [91] which carried forward to the Islamic world , and much of what later became known as Islamic learning—including medicine , architecture , philosophy , philology , and literature —were of Sasanian basis.

The Safavid era is known as the Golden Age of Iranian art, [] and Safavid works of art show a far more unitary development than in any other period, [] as part of a political evolution that reunified Iran as a cultural entity.

A new Iranian school of fine art was established by Kamal-ol-Molk in , [] and was followed by the so-called "coffeehouse" style of painting.

The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience.

Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".

According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope , the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture.

The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods. Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian , various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, [] [] has the most influential literature.

Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature.

According to The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy , the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to BC.

The Cyrus Cylinder , which is known as "the first charter of human rights ", is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era.

Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shkand-gumanik Vizar , and Denkard , as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas. Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil , actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.

Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in Iranian history.

The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of Iranian mythology.

It draws heavily on the stories and characters of the Zoroastrian tradition, from the texts of the Avesta , the Denkard , and the Bundahishn.

Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, dating back to the third millennium BC. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between and BC.

The history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident in Avestan texts. Iranian traditional musical instruments include string instruments such as chang harp , qanun , santur , rud oud , barbat , tar , dotar , setar , tanbur , and kamanche , wind instruments such as sorna zurna , karna and ney , and percussion instruments such as tompak , kus , daf dayere , and naqare.

Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era. The emergence of genres such as rock in the s and hip hop in the s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.

Before the Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes, [] with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet.

The artifact, associated with Jiroft , bears five sequential images depicting a wild goat jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree.

The figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language. It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinematic close-up shot in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.

By the early 20th century, the five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. Later in , Mirza Ebrahim Sahhaf Bashi , a businessman, opened the first public movie theater in Tehran.

Until the early s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces. The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers.

Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in After the Revolution of , and following the Cultural Revolution , a new age emerged in Iranian cinema, starting with Long Live!

Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema. In , he was named as one of the Most Influential People in the world by the American news magazine Time.

It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. Alternatively, the Lunar Hejri calendar is used to indicate Islamic events, and the Gregorian calendar remarks the international events.

Due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influences from the neighboring cultures, the cuisine of Iran is diverse.

Herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes.

Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.

Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or mast-o-khiar , sabzi , salad Shirazi , and torshi , and might follow dishes such as borani , Mirza Qasemi , or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer.

Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing , snowboarding , hiking , rock climbing , [] and mountain climbing. The Azadi Sport Complex , which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion.

Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. In , Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess U.

Woman Grandmaster Nazi Paikidze [] [] and in shooting Indian world champion Heena Sidhu , [] as they refused to enter a country where they would be forced to wear a hijab.

Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking th out of countries on the Press Freedom Index as of Television was introduced in Iran in Iran received access to the Internet in According to Internet World Stats, as of [update] , around From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Persia disambiguation. This article is about the modern nation. For other uses, see Iran disambiguation.

Country in Western Asia. Prehistory of Iran and Archaeological sites in Iran. Muslim conquest of Persia and Medieval Iran.

Safavid dynasty , Afsharid dynasty , Zand dynasty , and Qajar dynasty. Agriculture in Iran and Environmental issues in Iran. List of Iranian cities by population.

Largest cities or towns in Iran census. Judicial system of Iran. Foreign relations of Iran. Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Education in Iran and Science and technology in Iran. Religion in Iran and Irreligion in Iran.

Iranian art and Arts of Iran. Achaemenid architecture , Parthian art , Sasanian art , Safavid art , Qajar art , and Iranian modern and contemporary art.

Iranian architecture and Persian gardens. Ruins of the Tachara , part of the World Heritage site of Persepolis.

Literature in Iran , Iranian literature , and Persian literature. Iranian mythology and Iranian folklore. Persian theater and Persian dance.

Cinema of Iran and History of Iranian animation. List of festivals in Iran. Public holidays in Iran. Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the Summer Olympics.

Taekwondo athlete Kimia Alizadeh wins bronze at the Summer Olympics. Iran portal Middle East portal. The word also appears four times in Old Persian: One is in the Behistun inscription , where ariya- is the name of a language DB 4.

Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. As referred to in art. The de facto motto however is: Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 17 October The New York Times May 17, Archived from the original PDF on 8 September Retrieved 2 November The Idea of Iran , London: The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor.

But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam.

On the other hand, when the Safavids not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.

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The newly independent states of Eurasia: A selection of photos shot recently from around the world. Iran begins celebrations marking 40th revolution anniv.

UN rejects Guaido, will only work with Maduro govt. Israeli forces shoot, injure 19 Palestinians in West Bank Israeli military forces attacked people protesting against settler attacks in the West Bank.

Boko Haram kills 60 in northeast Nigeria: Over 20 dead in US polar vortex, amputations feared Tens of millions of Americans faced Arctic-like temperatures that paralyzed the US Midwest and were blamed for at least 21 deaths.

US to pull troops home if deal reached with Taliban: Over 20 dead in US polar vortex, amputations feared 10hr. Iran welcomes new Lebanese govt.

Air Force unveils first Iran-made wide-body drone. Israel will face elimination if starts new war: US warns Israel against keeping up strikes on Syria.

Iran increasing ability amid US threats. A British embassy report in , estimated that there were almost 1, German nationals in Iran.

However, the Iranians also began to reduce their trade with the Germans under Allied demands. British forces were already present in sizeable numbers in Iraq as a result of the Anglo-Iraqi War earlier in Thus, British troops were stationed on the western border of Iran prior to the invasion.

His followers who refused British occupation in the Iranian government such as Fazlollah Zahedi [17] and Mohammad Hosein Airom shared similar fates.

The British believed that Zahedi was planning a general uprising in cooperation with German forces. He was arrested, where he was found with German weapons and correspondence from a German agent.

He was flown out of the country and interned in Palestine. In commercial links, West Germany however remained well ahead of other European countries, even the United States, until In , following the visit to Tehran of the West German chancellor Willy Brandt , Iran and West Germany signed an economic agreement which provided for Iranian exports of oil and natural gas to Germany, with West German exports to and investments in Iran in return.

While this provided the much needed cash injection to Krupp, it gave Iran access to German expertise to expand its steel industry.

In West Germany became the 2nd most important supplier of non-military goods to Iran. As repression in Iran became more intense, these demonstrations became more vigorous.

Hans-Dietrich Genscher was the first Western foreign minister to visit Iran after the Islamic Revolution in , visiting Iran in After the war, Germany increasingly became a primary trading partner of Iran, with German goods worth about 3.

The Mykonos restaurant assassinations and Mykonos Trial in Berlin severely soured relations. In the Mykonos trial, the courts found Kazem Darabi, an Iranian national who worked as a grocer in Berlin, and Lebanese Abbas Rhayel, guilty of murder and sentenced them to life in prison.

In its 10 April ruling, the court issued an international arrest warrant for Iranian intelligence minister Hojjat al-Islam Ali Fallahian [22] after declaring that the assassination had been ordered by him with knowledge of supreme leader Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and president Ayatollah Rafsanjani.

In a letter to Berlin mayor Klaus Wowereit , Mahmoud Ahmadinejad the then mayor of Tehran objected to the commemorative plaque in front of the restaurant, calling it an insult to Iran.

In , a German, Helmut Hofer, was arrested in Tehran after having an affair with an Iranian woman. This caused some tremors in the domestic political landscape as well as diplomatic relations of Tehran-Berlin.

In a German lawyer, Andreas Moser, was arrested during the protests against the elections; he was released after one week.

Merkel said Iran had "blatantly crossed the red line"— and not only with regard to respecting its international obligations as a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Iran Deutschland Video

Ahmadinedschad Iran über Deutschland Median Art and Architecture]. Archived from the original PDF on 6 August Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras. Archived from the original on 26 February Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 19 July It is session login capital of the province of Isfahanand was also the third capital of hsv eintracht Safavid Empire. Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 31 October Hormuz IslandPersian Gulf. An Anthology of Philosophy in Casino sextett. Eine Antwort auf Christoph Bertram Bitte hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und gute Belege einfügst. Bilaterale Beziehungen des Iran in Europa. Am Montag treffen sich die beteiligten Staaten in Brüssel, um letzte Details zu klären. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Russische Geldgeber müssten sich um ihre Kredite Sorgen machen. Unter den Iranern sind verschiedene Weltanschauungen vertreten. Tauziehen im Teheraner Tollhaus 4. Nach Verdächtigungen, Anschläge in Europa verübt zu haben und weitere Attentate zu planen, hat die Bundesregierung nun Konsequenzen gegen den Iran gezogen: Einige deutsche Unternehmen kündigten bereits an, sich aus dem Iran-Geschäft zurückzuziehen. Iraner in Deutschland sind aus dem Iran stammende Personen, die sich mit diesem und dessen Kultur öffentlich identifizieren und in Deutschland wohnen. Der zweite Teil liefert Fallbeispiele für meine These, dass sich die Sonderbeziehung zwischen Teheran und Berlin auf Regierungskontakte nicht beschränkt: Es nennt sich Bitcoin. Marie Kondo und die Sehnsucht nach Ordnung. Deutschland, die Mullahs und das Atom Januar horse condom Ein Deutscher soll die Institution leiten. Nun sollen Sanktionen gegen Teheran verhängt werden. Doch wieviel Zeit bleibt ihr dafür? Ein Deutscher soll die Institution leiten. Nahezu alle Iranischstämmigen mit eigener Migrationserfahrung sprechen Persisch und zusätzlich oft auch ihre ursprüngliche Muttersprache. Die Geschichte der Perser in Deutschland reicht in die Anfänge des Weblink offline IABot Wikipedia: Nach dem Vertrag wurde der Iran bis Januar wirtschaftlich sanktioniert. Beim Auswärtigen Amt how much is roulette at jacks casino man sich indes bedeckt: Berlin dagegen hält an seiner Sonderbeziehung mit dem Regime fest. Auch ein mögliches Attentat gegen Robbe war Gegenstand der Ermittlungen. Doch wieviel Zeit bleibt ihr dafür? In Alster city casino leben In der Weimarer Republik lebten etwa 1. Vertreter des Regimes werden auch von zivilgesellschaftlichen Instanzen und Oppositionsparteien hofiert.

He was flown out of the country and interned in Palestine. In commercial links, West Germany however remained well ahead of other European countries, even the United States, until In , following the visit to Tehran of the West German chancellor Willy Brandt , Iran and West Germany signed an economic agreement which provided for Iranian exports of oil and natural gas to Germany, with West German exports to and investments in Iran in return.

While this provided the much needed cash injection to Krupp, it gave Iran access to German expertise to expand its steel industry. In West Germany became the 2nd most important supplier of non-military goods to Iran.

As repression in Iran became more intense, these demonstrations became more vigorous. Hans-Dietrich Genscher was the first Western foreign minister to visit Iran after the Islamic Revolution in , visiting Iran in After the war, Germany increasingly became a primary trading partner of Iran, with German goods worth about 3.

The Mykonos restaurant assassinations and Mykonos Trial in Berlin severely soured relations. In the Mykonos trial, the courts found Kazem Darabi, an Iranian national who worked as a grocer in Berlin, and Lebanese Abbas Rhayel, guilty of murder and sentenced them to life in prison.

In its 10 April ruling, the court issued an international arrest warrant for Iranian intelligence minister Hojjat al-Islam Ali Fallahian [22] after declaring that the assassination had been ordered by him with knowledge of supreme leader Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and president Ayatollah Rafsanjani.

In a letter to Berlin mayor Klaus Wowereit , Mahmoud Ahmadinejad the then mayor of Tehran objected to the commemorative plaque in front of the restaurant, calling it an insult to Iran.

In , a German, Helmut Hofer, was arrested in Tehran after having an affair with an Iranian woman. This caused some tremors in the domestic political landscape as well as diplomatic relations of Tehran-Berlin.

In a German lawyer, Andreas Moser, was arrested during the protests against the elections; he was released after one week.

Merkel said Iran had "blatantly crossed the red line"— and not only with regard to respecting its international obligations as a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

She said it was also "unacceptable" for President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran to question the extent of the Holocaust and to say that the Israel should "disappear from the pages of time," in a reference to the dismantling of the state of Israel.

Iran demanded an apology from Germany for the "immoral act". Around 50 German firms have their own branch offices in Iran and more than 12, firms have their own trade representatives in Iran.

The overall bilateral trade volume until the end of September stood at 3. Sanctions would especially hurt medium-sized German companies, which depend heavily on trade with Iran.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Economy of Germany and Economy of Iran. Arthur Frank Joseph Remy. Coauthored with Michael Rubin.

Roots and Results of Revolution. An answer to Mr. The Case of Iran, ". Journal of Contemporary History. Deciphering the Twenty-Five Year Conflict Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization.

Archived from the original on Iran must recognize Israel". Retrieved 11 January The Guardian Council comprises twelve jurists, including six appointed by the Supreme Leader.

Others are elected by the Parliament, from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judiciary. If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia Islamic law , it is referred back to the Parliament for revision.

The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed. The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics , although it has also taken on cases involving laypeople.

The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework, and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader.

The officially stated goal of the government of Iran is to establish a new world order based on world peace , global collective security , and justice.

This has led the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran which had further isolated Iran politically and economically from the rest of the global community.

In , the U. Director of National Intelligence said that Iran, if choosing to, would not be able to develop a nuclear weapon until The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: Iran also has around , Reserve Force, totaling around , trained troops.

The government of Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps , called the Basij , which includes about 90, full-time, active-duty uniformed members.

Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service. The government of Iran supports the military activities of its allies in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon Hezbollah with military and financial aid.

Iran controlled over 70, troops deployed in Syria. Since the Revolution, to overcome foreign embargoes, the government of Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks , armored personnel carriers , missiles , submarines , military vessels, missile destroyer , radar systems, helicopters , and fighter planes.

The objective is to move towards free market prices in a 5-year period and increase productivity and social justice. Iran has also developed a biotechnology , nanotechnology , and pharmaceutical industry.

Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries , and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness.

In , Iran was ranked 69, out of nations, in the Global Competitiveness Report. Iran has leading manufacturing industries in the fields of automobile manufacture, transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, and petrochemicals in the Middle East.

Economic sanctions against Iran , such as the embargo against Iranian crude oil, have affected the economy.

Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has been subsequently recovered. Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of —, four percent more than the previous year.

Alongside the capital, the most popular tourist destinations are Isfahan , Mashhad , and Shiraz. In , Iran ranked 68th in tourism revenues worldwide.

It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated ,,, barrels. In the early s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags.

Few exploratory wells were drilled in The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33, megawatts.

In , Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant was to come online in Education in Iran is highly centralized.

K—12 is supervised by the Ministry of Education , and higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology.

The adult literacy rated The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate. Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from through , and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China.

Iran placed its domestically built satellite Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the Revolution, on 2 February , [] through its first expendable launch vehicle Safir , becoming the ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launcher.

The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the s. Iran is the seventh country to produce uranium hexafluoride , and controls the entire nuclear fuel cycle.

Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In , Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser , and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi A.

Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, the HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory , with many papers being published in Iran.

In August , Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman, as well as the first Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal , the highest prize in mathematics.

Iran is a diverse country, consisting of numerous ethnic and linguistic groups that are unified through a shared Iranian nationality.

Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with more than one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq. According to the Iranian Constitution , the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security , covering retirement, unemployment, old age, disability , accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services.

UN World Population Prospects []. The majority of the population speak Persian , which is also the official language of the country.

Others include speakers of a number of other Iranian languages within the greater Indo-European family, and languages belonging to some other ethnicities living in Iran.

In northern Iran, mostly confined to Gilan and Mazenderan , the Gilaki and Mazenderani languages are widely spoken, both having affinities to the neighboring Caucasian languages.

In parts of Gilan, the Talysh language is also widely spoken, which stretches up to the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan. Varieties of Kurdish are widely spoken in the province of Kurdistan and nearby areas.

In Khuzestan , several distinct varieties of Persian are spoken. Lurish and Lari are also spoken in southern Iran. Azerbaijani Turkish , which is by far the most spoken language in the country after Persian, [] as well as a number of other Turkic languages and dialects, is spoken in various regions of Iran, especially in the region of Azerbaijan.

Circassian was also once widely spoken by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore.

Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis.

As with the spoken languages, the ethnic group composition also remains a point of debate, mainly regarding the largest and second largest ethnic groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to the lack of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity.

The Library of Congress issued slightly different estimates: Qashqai and Turkmens , and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups incl. Other non-governmental estimations regarding the groups other than the Persians and Azerbaijanis roughly congruate with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress.

However, many scholarly and organisational estimations regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census.

According to many of them, the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran comprises between Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras.

This changed after the fall of the Sasanian Empire by the centuries-long Islamization that followed the Muslim Conquest of Iran.

Iran was predominantly Sunni until the conversion of the country as well as the people of what is today the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan to Shia Islam by the order of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century.

There are about 3,, adherents of Yarsanism , a Kurdish indigenous religion related to Zoroastrianism: Its followers are mainly Gorani Kurds and certain groups of Lurs.

Judaism has a long history in Iran , dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the Revolution, about 8, [] to 25, [] Jewish people live in Iran.

Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel. Most are of Armenian background, as well as a sizable minority of Assyrians.

Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament.

The government has not released statistics regarding irreligiosity. However, irreligious figures are growing and are higher in the diaspora , notably among Iranian Americans.

The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and south and east Asia to the east.

The art of Iran encompasses many disciplines, including architecture , stonemasonry , metalworking , weaving , pottery , painting , and calligraphy.

Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. Greek iconography was imported by the Seleucids , followed by the recombination of Hellenistic and earlier Near Eastern elements in the art of the Parthians , [] with remains such as the Temple of Anahita and the Statue of the Parthian Nobleman.

By the time of the Sasanians, Iranian art came across a general renaissance. During the Middle Ages, Sasanian art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, [91] which carried forward to the Islamic world , and much of what later became known as Islamic learning—including medicine , architecture , philosophy , philology , and literature —were of Sasanian basis.

The Safavid era is known as the Golden Age of Iranian art, [] and Safavid works of art show a far more unitary development than in any other period, [] as part of a political evolution that reunified Iran as a cultural entity.

A new Iranian school of fine art was established by Kamal-ol-Molk in , [] and was followed by the so-called "coffeehouse" style of painting. The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC.

Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience.

Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".

According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope , the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture.

The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods. Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian , various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, [] [] has the most influential literature.

Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature.

According to The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy , the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to BC.

The Cyrus Cylinder , which is known as "the first charter of human rights ", is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era.

Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shkand-gumanik Vizar , and Denkard , as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas.

Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil , actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.

Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in Iranian history.

The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of Iranian mythology.

It draws heavily on the stories and characters of the Zoroastrian tradition, from the texts of the Avesta , the Denkard , and the Bundahishn.

Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, dating back to the third millennium BC. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between and BC.

The history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident in Avestan texts. Iranian traditional musical instruments include string instruments such as chang harp , qanun , santur , rud oud , barbat , tar , dotar , setar , tanbur , and kamanche , wind instruments such as sorna zurna , karna and ney , and percussion instruments such as tompak , kus , daf dayere , and naqare.

Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era. The emergence of genres such as rock in the s and hip hop in the s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.

Before the Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes, [] with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet.

The artifact, associated with Jiroft , bears five sequential images depicting a wild goat jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree.

The figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language. It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinematic close-up shot in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.

By the early 20th century, the five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. Later in , Mirza Ebrahim Sahhaf Bashi , a businessman, opened the first public movie theater in Tehran.

Until the early s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces. The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers.

Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in After the Revolution of , and following the Cultural Revolution , a new age emerged in Iranian cinema, starting with Long Live!

Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema. In , he was named as one of the Most Influential People in the world by the American news magazine Time.

It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. Alternatively, the Lunar Hejri calendar is used to indicate Islamic events, and the Gregorian calendar remarks the international events.

Due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influences from the neighboring cultures, the cuisine of Iran is diverse.

Herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins.

To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes.

Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.

Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or mast-o-khiar , sabzi , salad Shirazi , and torshi , and might follow dishes such as borani , Mirza Qasemi , or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer.

Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing , snowboarding , hiking , rock climbing , [] and mountain climbing.

The Azadi Sport Complex , which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion. Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran.

In , Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess U. Woman Grandmaster Nazi Paikidze [] [] and in shooting Indian world champion Heena Sidhu , [] as they refused to enter a country where they would be forced to wear a hijab.

Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking th out of countries on the Press Freedom Index as of Television was introduced in Iran in Iran received access to the Internet in According to Internet World Stats, as of [update] , around From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Persia disambiguation. This article is about the modern nation. For other uses, see Iran disambiguation. Country in Western Asia.

Prehistory of Iran and Archaeological sites in Iran. Muslim conquest of Persia and Medieval Iran. Safavid dynasty , Afsharid dynasty , Zand dynasty , and Qajar dynasty.

Agriculture in Iran and Environmental issues in Iran. List of Iranian cities by population. Largest cities or towns in Iran census.

Judicial system of Iran. Foreign relations of Iran. Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War.

Education in Iran and Science and technology in Iran. Religion in Iran and Irreligion in Iran. Iranian art and Arts of Iran. Achaemenid architecture , Parthian art , Sasanian art , Safavid art , Qajar art , and Iranian modern and contemporary art.

Iranian architecture and Persian gardens. Ruins of the Tachara , part of the World Heritage site of Persepolis. Literature in Iran , Iranian literature , and Persian literature.

Iranian mythology and Iranian folklore. Persian theater and Persian dance. Cinema of Iran and History of Iranian animation. List of festivals in Iran.

Public holidays in Iran. Weightlifter Kianoush Rostami wins gold at the Summer Olympics. Taekwondo athlete Kimia Alizadeh wins bronze at the Summer Olympics.

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2 Responses

  1. Kagatilar says:

    Sagen Sie vor, wo ich es finden kann?

  2. Brashura says:

    Es — ist sinnlos.

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