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Buck übersetzung

buck übersetzung

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Bell supported was designed in part by the eugenicist Harry H. Laughlin had, a few years previously, conducted a number of studies on the enforcement of sterilization legislation throughout the country and had concluded that the reason for their lack of use was primarily that the physicians who would order the sterilizations were afraid of prosecution by patients whom they operated upon.

Laughlin saw the need to create a "Model Law" [17] which could withstand a test of constitutional scrutiny, clearing the way for future sterilization operations.

The Third Reich held Laughlin in such regard that they arranged for him to receive an honorary doctorate from Heidelberg University in Bell as part of their defense.

Sterilization rates under eugenic laws in the United States climbed from until Skinner v. Oklahoma , U. Oklahoma did not specifically overturn Buck v.

Bell , it created enough of a legal quandary to discourage many sterilizations. By , sterilization laws were almost wholly out of use, though some remained officially on the books for many years.

The Carrie Buck Story. Although this opinion and eugenics remain controversial, the decision in this case still stands. Wade , but not in support of abortion rights.

To the contrary, Justice Blackmun quoted it to justify that the constitutional right to abortion is not unlimited.

In the case of Fieger v. Bell by writing "as Justice Holmes pointed out in the only part of Buck v. Bell to protect the constitutional rights of a woman coerced into sterilization without procedural due process.

Bell , for performing an involuntary sterilization. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States Supreme Court case.

Oklahoma Stump v. Sparkman Poe v. This article incorporates public domain material from this U. Archived from the original on June 18, New Light on Buck v.

Archived from the original on She is the daughter of a feeble-minded mother in the same institution, and the mother of an illegitimate feeble-minded child.

Archived from the original PDF on January 13, Retrieved July 24, Archived copy as title link "Silent Protest: A Catholic Justice Dissents in Buck v.

A Smart History of a Failed Idea , pp. Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved April 22, Better for All the World: Compulsory Sterilization in 50 American States - Virginia".

General Assembly of Virginia. Retrieved May 30, Wade , U. The Court has refused to recognize an unlimited right of this kind in the past.

Thomas , 74 F. And, as Justice Holmes pointed out in the only part of Buck v. It is true that involuntary sterilization is not always unconstitutional if it is a narrowly tailored means to achieve a compelling government interest.

It is also true that the mentally handicapped, depending on their circumstances, may be subjected to various degrees of government intrusion that would be unjustified if directed at other segments of society.

See Cleburne, U. It does not follow, however, that the State can dispense with procedural protections, coerce an individual into sterilization, and then after the fact argue that it was justified.

If it did, it would invite conduct, like that alleged in this case, that is ripe for abuse and error. United States Fourteenth Amendment case law.

Slaughter-House Cases Elk v. Wilkins United States v. Wong Kim Ark Perez v. Brownell Afroyim v. Rusk Rogers v.

Bellei Saenz v. Kansas Allgeyer v. Louisiana Lochner v. New York Coppage v. Kansas Adams v. Tanner Adkins v. Nebraska Pierce v. Society of Sisters Griswold v.

Connecticut Doe v. Bolton Roe v. Wade Bowers v. Hardwick Webster v. Reproductive Health Services Planned Parenthood v.

Casey Lawrence v. Vuitch Doe v. Matheson City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health Webster v. Reproductive Health Services Hodgson v.

Minnesota Planned Parenthood v. Casey Stenberg v. Carhart Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of New England Gonzales v.

Pape McNeese v. Ray Jenkins v. McKeithen Scheuer v. Rhodes Wood v. Donaldson Paul v. Davis Imbler v. Pachtman Monell v.

Navarette Owen v. City of Independence Harlow v. Fitzgerald Felder v. Casey Will v. Doe Inyo County v. This implies that the current flowing through the capacitor has a zero average value.

As can be seen in figure 5, the inductor current waveform has a triangular shape. Therefore, the average value of I L can be sorted out geometrically as follow:.

The inductor current is zero at the beginning and rises during t on up to I Lmax. That means that I Lmax is equal to:. It can be seen that the output voltage of a buck converter operating in discontinuous mode is much more complicated than its counterpart of the continuous mode.

Furthermore, the output voltage is now a function not only of the input voltage V i and the duty cycle D, but also of the inductor value L , the commutation period T and the output current I o.

As mentioned at the beginning of this section, the converter operates in discontinuous mode when low current is drawn by the load, and in continuous mode at higher load current levels.

The limit between discontinuous and continuous modes is reached when the inductor current falls to zero exactly at the end of the commutation cycle.

Using the notations of figure 5, this corresponds to:. Therefore, the output current equal to the average inductor current at the limit between discontinuous and continuous modes is see above:.

On the limit between the two modes, the output voltage obeys both the expressions given respectively in the continuous and the discontinuous sections.

In particular, the former is. These expressions have been plotted in figure 6. From this, it can be deduced that in continuous mode, the output voltage does only depend on the duty cycle, whereas it is far more complex in the discontinuous mode.

This is important from a control point of view. On the circuit level, the detection of the boundary between CCM and DCM are usually provided by an inductor current sensing, requiring high accuracy and fast detectors as: These assumptions can be fairly far from reality, and the imperfections of the real components can have a detrimental effect on the operation of the converter.

Output voltage ripple is the name given to the phenomenon where the output voltage rises during the On-state and falls during the Off-state. Several factors contribute to this including, but not limited to, switching frequency, output capacitance, inductor, load and any current limiting features of the control circuitry.

At the most basic level the output voltage will rise and fall as a result of the output capacitor charging and discharging:.

We can best approximate output ripple voltage by shifting the output current versus time waveform continuous mode down so that the average output current is along the time axis.

When we do this, we see the AC current waveform flowing into and out of the output capacitor sawtooth waveform.

A full explanation is given there. We note from basic AC circuit theory that our ripple voltage should be roughly sinusoidal: This gives confidence in our assessment here of ripple voltage.

The paragraph directly below pertains that directly above and may be incorrect. Use the equations in this paragraph. Once again, please see talk tab for more: During the Off-state, the current in this equation is the load current.

In the On-state the current is the difference between the switch current or source current and the load current.

The duration of time dT is defined by the duty cycle and by the switching frequency. Qualitatively, as the output capacitor or switching frequency increase, the magnitude of the ripple decreases.

Output voltage ripple is typically a design specification for the power supply and is selected based on several factors.

Capacitor selection is normally determined based on cost, physical size and non-idealities of various capacitor types. Switching frequency selection is typically determined based on efficiency requirements, which tends to decrease at higher operating frequencies, as described below in Effects of non-ideality on the efficiency.

Higher switching frequency can also raise EMI concerns. Output voltage ripple is one of the disadvantages of a switching power supply, and can also be a measure of its quality.

A simplified analysis of the buck converter, as described above, does not account for non-idealities of the circuit components nor does it account for the required control circuitry.

Power losses due to the control circuitry are usually insignificant when compared with the losses in the power devices switches, diodes, inductors, etc.

The non-idealities of the power devices account for the bulk of the power losses in the converter. Both static and dynamic power losses occur in any switching regulator.

Dynamic power losses occur as a result of switching, such as the charging and discharging of the switch gate, and are proportional to the switching frequency.

The voltage drops described above are all static power losses which are dependent primarily on DC current, and can therefore be easily calculated.

For a diode drop, V sw and V sw,sync may already be known, based on the properties of the selected device. The duty cycle equation is somewhat recursive.

A rough analysis can be made by first calculating the values V sw and V sw,sync using the ideal duty cycle equation. This approximation is acceptable because the MOSFET is in the linear state, with a relatively constant drain-source resistance.

This approximation is only valid at relatively low V DS values. These losses include turn-on and turn-off switching losses and switch transition losses.

Then, the switch losses will be more like:. When a MOSFET is used for the lower switch, additional losses may occur during the time between the turn-off of the high-side switch and the turn-on of the low-side switch, when the body diode of the low-side MOSFET conducts the output current.

This time, known as the non-overlap time, prevents "shootthrough", a condition in which both switches are simultaneously turned on.

The onset of shootthrough generates severe power loss and heat. Proper selection of non-overlap time must balance the risk of shootthrough with the increased power loss caused by conduction of the body diode.

When a diode is used exclusively for the lower switch, diode forward turn-on time can reduce efficiency and lead to voltage overshoot. Finally, power losses occur as a result of the power required to turn the switches on and off.

A complete design for a buck converter includes a tradeoff analysis of the various power losses. Designers balance these losses according to the expected uses of the finished design.

A converter expected to have a low switching frequency does not require switches with low gate transition losses; a converter operating at a high duty cycle requires a low-side switch with low conduction losses.

A synchronous buck converter is a modified version of the basic buck converter circuit topology in which the diode, D, is replaced by a second switch, S 2.

This modification is a tradeoff between increased cost and improved efficiency. In a standard buck converter, the flyback diode turns on, on its own, shortly after the switch turns off, as a result of the rising voltage across the diode.

This voltage drop across the diode results in a power loss which is equal to. By replacing the diode with a switch selected for low loss, the converter efficiency can be improved.

In both cases, power loss is strongly dependent on the duty cycle, D. Power loss on the freewheeling diode or lower switch will be proportional to its on-time.

Therefore, systems designed for low duty cycle operation will suffer from higher losses in the freewheeling diode or lower switch, and for such systems it is advantageous to consider a synchronous buck converter design.

A typical diode with forward voltage of 0. This translates to improved efficiency and reduced heat generation. Another advantage of the synchronous converter is that it is bi-directional, which lends itself to applications requiring regenerative braking.

When power is transferred in the "reverse" direction, it acts much like a boost converter. The advantages of the synchronous buck converter do not come without cost.

First, the lower switch typically costs more than the freewheeling diode. Second, the complexity of the converter is vastly increased due to the need for a complementary-output switch driver.

Such a driver must prevent both switches from being turned on at the same time, a fault known as "shootthrough". The simplest technique for avoiding shootthrough is a time delay between the turn-off of S 1 to the turn-on of S 2 , and vice versa.

However, setting this time delay long enough to ensure that S 1 and S 2 are never both on will itself result in excess power loss.

An improved technique for preventing this condition is known as adaptive "non-overlap" protection, in which the voltage at the switch node the point where S 1 , S 2 and L are joined is sensed to determine its state.

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